adult respiratory diseases in the developing world are a major burden in terms of morbidity and mortality and, particularly as related to chronic respiratory disease, are of increasing concern (murray and lopez 1996). generally, influenza is more self-limiting than pneumonia, although the infectivity and transmission of influenza from person to person can be substantial. the costs of the 1996–97 epidemic in germany were estimated at us$1,045 million, and the annual costs of outbreaks at us$11 million to us$18 million (who 2002a). it is not possible to extrapolate the exact annual burden of influenza in the tropics from data on such occasional and severe outbreaks. the response to this question has been validated in a number of studies. in contrast to other adult respiratory diseases, the prevalence of asthma is relatively low (figures 35.1a and 35.1b). asthma and copd combined account for 44 percent of the burden. most of the other interventions summarized in table 35.2 have a higher cost per qaly.
smoking prevention is one of the most cost-effective health interventions that exists, and there is a strong case for moving resources from expensive curative interventions to that intervention. certain occupational lung diseases, such as silicosis, are complicated by a substantially increased risk of tuberculosis, which contributes to the overall burden of respiratory disease in the developing world. in addition, occupational exposure is associated with the occurrence of lung cancer, and according to studies in developed countries, the rate of occurrence is synergistically associated with smoking. of these, the most pressing and cost-effective is a cohesive policy to control tobacco smoking. control of asthma improved, and the majority of patients experienced a decrease in the severity of asthma. most of the literature relates to education programs for specific entities (for example, “asthma triggers”) and their costs in developed countries. clearly, of even greater concern is the potential for a new influenza a pandemic, as occurred in 1918 and more recently in 1958 and 1968, from a newly altered strain of avian influenza. heightened vigilance for cases of respiratory disease in persons with a history of exposure to infected poultry is also recommended in countries with known poultry outbreaks. efforts are underway to identify the genetic make-up of the strains of h5n1 that will yield the most effective vaccines and to produce such vaccines in a cost-effective manner.
asthma. your airways are constantly inflamed and may spasm, causing wheezing and shortness of breath. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease( many breathing problems are long-term (chronic). these include chronic sinusitis, allergies, and asthma. they can cause symptoms such as nasal in adults, copd dominates all other chronic respiratory diseases in accounting for 2 percent to more than 10 percent of lost disability-adjusted life years (, .
asthma copd (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) exacerbation — worsening of symptoms deconditioning heart dysfunction interstitial lung disease obesity lung disease a – z ; a. asbestosis asthma ; b bronchiectasis bronchitis ; c chronic cough chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) common cold. asthma, emphysema, or pneumonia ; trachea or bronchi, which are part of your airway system ; heart disease can make you feel breathless if your, . the top 8 respiratory illnesses and diseasesasthma. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) chronic bronchitis. emphysema. lung cancer. cystic fibrosis/bronchiectasis. pneumonia. pleural effusion.
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