children under 5 are especially vulnerable to infectious diseases like malaria, pneumonia, diarrhoea, hiv and tuberculosis. unicef works around the world to protect and prevent children from dying of disease. in many parts of the world, a child dies from pneumonia every minute – even though the disease is entirely preventable and can be easily managed with antibiotics. in 2019, diarrhoea killed approximately 480,000 young children across the globe, accounting for 9 per cent of all deaths among children under age 5. these children could have been saved by simple effective interventions, such as oral rehydration salt and zinc: approximately 70 to 90 per cent of deaths caused by acute watery diarrhoea can be prevented by oral rehydration salt, while zinc is estimated to decrease diarrhoea mortality by 11.5 per cent.
malaria is the world’s third most deadly disease for young children between the ages of one month and 5 years, following pneumonia and diarrhoea. tuberculosis (tb) is a disease that the world knows how to prevent and treat. most of these deaths occur among children under the age of 5. while countries have developed methods for tb prevention, surveillance, diagnosis and treatment in adults, children are still falling through the cracks. to meet this challenge, unicef works closely with governments and partners to incorporate tb prevention and treatment in child health strategies. this report provides guidance to policymakers, health professionals and technical agencies involved in the implementation and support of tuberculosis programmes.
for many kids, starting child care or school for the first time will bring many firsts: their first day, their first teacher, their first best friend, and for some their first rounds of common childhood illnesses. in child care centres and schools, germs can spread easily with kids playing in close proximity to each other. some of the main ways diseases can be spread are through the air when a sick child coughs or sneezes, or through direct contact when a sick child touches infectious parts of their body then touches toys or other children, who may then touch their mouth, nose or eyes. they also keep kids showing signs of sickness away from other children and not allowing sick kids to attend. in some cases, a sick child may spread their illness to other children or adults if they attend child care or school while infectious.
there are many types of illnesses that can go around child care centres and schools. a number of these diseases have vaccines that are included in the immunisations schedule queensland, for example: illnesses like the common cold, conjunctivitis and hand foot and mouth disease do not have vaccinations and, although these illnesses rarely cause serious symptoms, children should still be kept home from child care or school until not infectious. in queensland, there are a number of recommended vaccinations children can receive for free through the immunisation schedule queensland. some childcare centres require you to prove your child’s immunisation status is up-to-date before you can enrol or attend an approved early childhood service. the best way to protect your child is to teach them about hygiene and keep them at home when they are sick. you can find out how long you need to keep your child at home when they’re sick from the time out brochure (pdf 722kb).
pediatrics is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. the american academy of pediatrics recommends people seek pediatric care through the age of 21. in the united kingdom, paediatrics covers patients until age 18. childhood diseases. malaria, pneumonia, diarrhoea, hiv and tuberculosis are preventable and treatable. but they are still killing children in large numbers. most children may have 6 to 8 colds a year. other common childhood illnesses include allergies, skin problems, eye conditions, neurological issues and find more information about your child’s condition, and the treatment options available at children’s hospital. find a condition or disease, rare childhood diseases, rare childhood diseases, what are the 7 childhood diseases, list of chronic childhood illnesses, childhood diseases and conditions doctor.
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