this study was carried out to determine the effect of earplugs and eye mask on iranian patients’ sleep quality in icu.  despite many unknown aspects of the role of sleep in health and diseases, lack of sleep is directly associated with poor mental and physical function.  generally, it can be mentioned that physiologic, psychological, mental and environmental factors play a role in the incidence of sleep deprivation in hospitalized patients. in addition, lack of local studies in this field in icus led us to conduct this study to investigate the effect of earplugs and eye mask on patients’ perceived sleep quality in icu.
in group b, at the first night of study (control night), the patients were asked to sleep at 10 pm or earlier (if they liked), with earplugs and an eye mask. as the design of the present study was cross-over, in order to confirm the results of earplugs and eye mask use in the components of sleep effectiveness and sleep disturbance, carryover effect and periodic effect were determined and analyzed. mean sleep effectiveness of the patients in group a in the treatment step and control step were 30.18 and 19.12, respectively.  with regard to the cross-over design of the present study, the intergroup effect of earplugs and eye mask usage on sleep effectiveness and sleep disturbance in the two steps of treatment and control was investigated and showed a significant difference. in fact, the psychological effect of wearing these tools was so high that patients magnified their sleep scores and reported them.
using physical devices such as eye masks and earplugs to improve to the quality of sleep in intensive care units (icus) is a very important issue. therefore, we conducted this study to examine the efficacy of eye masks and earplugs for sleep promotion in critically ill patients based on various sleep quality assessment tools. eligible studies were rated according to the dictionary and guidelines of the tool. twenty-four studies were excluded due to unclear methodology, involve the use of eye masks and earplugs as part of a multimodal intervention, and lack of adequate control group. the result revealed that the average psqi score of the eye masks and/ or earplugs group was 5.02 points lower than that of the control group and indicating that the interventions might be beneficial to improve overall sleep quality. the results showing that the average rcsq score of the treatment group was 11.46 points higher than that of the control group and indicating that the intervention might be beneficial to improve overall sleep quality based on rcsq score in critically ill patients (figure 3a). in the study, the effect of using eye masks and/or earplugs on quality of sleep was investigated in critical care setting and simulated environment of intensive care. eight studies used various instruments to evaluate the effectiveness of eye masks and earplugs on the sleep quality of icu patients. however, all of them had consensus on the positive effect of using eye masks and earplugs on the subjective quality of sleep. consistent with previous review studies (15, 16) on the effects of eye masks and /or earplug interventions on sleep quality in intensive care patients. non-pharmacological interventions for sleep promotion in the intensive care unit.
sleep and delirium in the intensive care unit. doi: 10.4037/ajcc2013545 16. locihova h, axmann k, padysakova h, fejfar j. effect of the use of earplugs and eye mask on the quality of sleep in intensive care patients: a systematic review. the effect of earplugs on sleep measures during exposure to simulated intensive care unit noise. the effect of earplugs during the night on the onset of delirium and sleep perception: a randomized controlled trial in intensive care patients. 32. yazdannik ar, zareie a, hasanpour m, kashefi p. the effect of earplugs and eye mask on patients’ perceived sleep quality in intensive care unit. the effect of a quality improvement intervention on perceived sleep quality and cognition in a medical icu. (2020) 2020:8898172. doi: 10.1155/2020/8898172 42. sharafi s, hajiabadi f, razi m, bahrami m. the effect of simultaneously using earplug and eye mask on quality of sleep in intensive care unit patients: a randomized clinical trial study. preliminary analysis of impact of earplugs and eye masks on sleep quality for patients in a sicu. the impact of earplugs and eye masks on sleep quality in surgical icu patients at risk for frequent awakenings. clinical review: the impact of noise on patients’ sleep and the effectiveness of noise reduction strategies in intensive care units. the use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
the results of the present study showed that usage of earplugs and an eye mask had a high effect on patients’ sleep supplementation, so that their level of sleeping with earplugs can significantly improve the quality of your sleep. for many people, earplugs are the only way to block out sounds while they sleep, several studies found that the use of earplugs and eye masks improved sleep quality (13, 14). in addition, two systematic reviews by alway et al, best earplugs for sleeping, best earplugs for sleeping, sleep ear plugs, why do earplugs hurt my ears, does wearing ear plugs damage your ears.
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