additionally, we discuss the pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic mechanisms of ketamine as an antidepressant and the predictive biomarkers for ketamine’s effect on sleep and cognitive function. abnormal expression of clock genes resulting from sleep disturbance and environmental factors is associated with the development of both insomnia and depression (monteleone et al., 2011). increased activity of the amygdala frequently occurs in combination with increased concentration of noradrenaline and cortisol, which are responsible for memory enhancement. (2014) demonstrated that neurodegeneration was accompanied by sleep disturbances due to a reduction in the amplitude and phase changes of circadian rhythms. inflammation is associated with the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases (willeit et al., 2016). subsequently, several studies replicated the robust antidepressant and anti-suicidal effects of (r,s)-ketamine in treatment-resistant patients with mdd or bipolar depression. negligible effects of the ketamine infusion on sleep eeg were measured in bands corresponding to sleep spindles, and alpha or theta frequencies (duncan et al., 2013). these results confirmed that the ketamine can inhibit hippocampal neuronal apoptosis, and consequently cognitive loss in rat (sun et al., 2011). these findings forced scientists and physicians to reconsider the safety and toxicity of ketamine in pediatric patients. such research would be essential to reveal the key components of the rapid antidepressant response mechanism and to identify novel therapies for treating sleep disturbances. the priamo study: a multicenter assessment of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in parkinson’s disease. sleep and psychiatric disorders. hyperarousal and insomnia: state of the science. sleep apnea and the risk of dementia: a population-based 5-year follow-up study in taiwan. doi:10.1038/nrn3027 dong, c., and anand, k. j. “ketamine-induced glutamatergic mechanisms of sleep and wakefulness: insights for developing novel treatments for disturbed sleep and mood,” in handbook of experimental pharmacology. depression in sleep disturbance: a review on a bidirectional relationship, mechanisms and treatment. prevalence of sleep disturbances in mild cognitive impairment and dementing disorders: a multicenter italian clinical cross-sectional study on 431 patients. sleep characteristics and cognitive impairment in the general population: the hypnolaus study.
sleep irregularity and risk of cardiovascular events: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. blockade of nmda receptors and apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain. sleep and activity patterns in older patients discharged from the hospital. efficacy and safety of intranasal esketamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder. association of sleep-disordered breathing with cognitive function and risk of cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. pretreatment neurophysiological and clinical characteristics of placebo responders in treatment trials for major depression. a meta-analysis of the impact of short-term sleep deprivation on cognitive variables. human longevity is associated with regular sleep patterns, maintenance of slow wave sleep, and favorable lipid profile. different patterns of cortical gray matter loss over time in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and alzheimer’s disease. ketamine enantiomers in the rapid and sustained antidepressant effects. sleep duration and neurocognitive function in the hispanic community health study/study of latinos. cx3cr1 deficiency leads to impairment of hippocampal cognitive function and synaptic plasticity. from stress to inflammation and major depressive disorder: a social signal transduction theory of depression. effect of ketamine anesthesia on cognitive function and immune function in young rats. the neurobiological mechanisms and treatments of rem sleep disturbances in depression. molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of ketamine enantiomers and its metabolites. clinical features of depressed outpatients with and without co-occurring general medical conditions in star*d. gen. hosp. cortical thinning is associated with disease stages and dementia in parkinson’s disease. doi:10.5664/jcsm.26665 citation: song b and zhu j-c (2021) mechanisms of the rapid effects of ketamine on depression and sleep disturbances: a narrative review.
poor sleep quality was associated with the initiation of and dependence on ketamine use. poor sleep quality in ketamine users is an important issue because it is directly and indirectly through craving associated with ketamine use. we hypothesized that (1) poor sleep quality may be associated with the initiation of and dependence on ketamine use and (2) craving mediates the relationship between sleep quality and ketamine use. we used the vacs, modified from previous studies26,27, to assess the level of craving in ketamine users from the community and control environment. comparison of sleep quality between the healthy controls, current ketamine users without ketamine use disorder, current ketamine users with ketamine use disorder, and abstinent ketamine users with ketamine use disorder was performed using analysis of variance (anova). in addition, both sleep quality and craving for ketamine were associated with the amount of money spent on ketamine in current ketamine users with ketamine use disorder. in addition, the abstinent ketamine users with ketamine use disorder had a lower mean psqi score and a lower rate of poor sleep quality than the current ketamine users with ketamine use disorder. our findings also demonstrated that poor sleep was positively associated with craving for ketamine, indicating a potential role of craving in mediating the relationship between sleep problems and ketamine use. future research on the efficacy of clinical interventions designed to improve sleep quality in ketamine users is warranted to address cravings and promote cessation. ford, d. e. & kamerow, d. b. epidemiologic study of sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders: an opportunity for prevention?. siegel, r. k. phencyclidine and ketamine intoxication: a study of four populations of recreational users.
to use or not to use: an update on licit and illicit ketamine use. comparison of illegal drug use pattern in taiwan and korea from 2006 to 2014. subst. freeman, l. k. & gottfredson, n. c. using ecological momentary assessment to assess the temporal relationship between sleep quality and cravings in individuals recovering from substance use disorders. & roth, t. sleep disturbance in substance use disorders. m. reliability, convergent and structural validity and cut-off score of the severity of dependence scale for recreational ketamine users. quantification of subjective sleep quality in healthy elderly men and women using the pittsburgh sleep quality index (psqi). nettleton, s., meadows, r. & neale, j. disturbing sleep and sleepfulness during recovery from substance dependence in residential rehabilitation settings. & arnedt, j. t. sleep and substance use disorders: an update. & volkow, n. d. drugs, sleep, and the addicted brain. lee, j. w., brown, e. s., perantie, d. c. & bobadilla, l. a comparison of single-item visual analog scales with a multiitem likert-type scale for assessment of cocaine craving in persons with bipolar disorder. sleep quality among individuals with ketamine use and the mediating role of craving.
polysomnographic studies have shown that mdd is associated with several sleep problems, including insomnia (88%), hypersomnia (27%), sleep poor sleep quality was significantly associated with current ketamine use with and without ketamine use disorder compared with the healthy in mdd, rapid antidepressant response to ketamine is related to decreased waking as well as increased total sleep, sws, slow wave activity (swa), related conditions, related conditions, symptoms of insomnia, ketamine cured my insomnia, long-term effects of special k.
ketamine infusions are an exceptional treatment for depression and anxiety, and they allow patients to work on substantially improving their lives. this ketamine can help sleep by improving mental disorders ketamine can help to improve the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and ptsd. by depression, including high comorbidity with insomnia. here we examine how self-rated insomnia relates to the rapid mood improvement effects of ketamine in, .
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