a complete medical history and physical examination, a thorough examination of the urine, and blood and urine chemistry examinations as indicated are essential initial steps in the workup of any patient. they are nondiagnostic of a specific renal disorder but do reflect an inflammatory condition in the kidneys. excluding diabetes, purported immunologic renal diseases are the most common cause of proteinuria and the nephrotic syndrome. the current classification of glomerulonephritis is based on the mechanism, the presence, and the localization of immune aggregates in the glomeruli. often the disease is mild, and there may be no reason to suspect renal involvement unless the urine is examined. recurrent macroscopic and microscopic hematuria and mild proteinuria are usually the only manifestations of renal disease. the urine shows gross or microscopic hematuria, and laboratory findings of severely suppressed renal function are usually evident. because treatment and prognosis vary with the cause of nephrotic syndrome, renal biopsy is important. focal glomerulosclerosis is the second most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children and an increasing cause of the nephrotic syndrome in adults. with the electron microscope, subendothelial deposits and growth of mesangium into capillary walls are demonstrable.
nitrogen retention varies with the severity of impairment of renal function. steroids are often less effective in the treatment of membranous disease and membranoproliferative lesions of the glomerulus. the presence of these formed elements is indicative of active glomerular and tubular disease. the urine usually is remarkable only for the presence of blood and small amounts of protein. alkalinization of the urine and a liberal fluid intake help prevent crystal formation. there is splitting and thickening of the gbm or podocyte proliferation and thickening of bowman’s capsule. the incidence of cerebral vessel aneurysms and mitral valve prolapse is higher than normal. medullary sponge kidney is asymptomatic and is discovered by the characteristic appearance of tubular ectasia in the urogram. in this congenital familial disease, aminoaciduria and renal tubular acidosis (rta) are associated with cirrhosis of the liver and neurologic manifestations. proximal rta, type ii, is due to reduced bicarbonate reclamation in the proximal tubule, with resultant loss of bicarbonate in the urine and decreased bicarbonate concentration in extracellular fluid. treatment consists of correcting the primary disease and giving supplementary potassium.
there’s no medicine specifically for ckd, but medicine can help control many of the problems that cause the condition and the complications that can happen as a result of it. there are many types of blood pressure medicines, but medicines called angiotensin converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors are often used. this is because some of the causes of kidney disease are the same as those for cardiovascular disease, including high blood pressure and high cholesterol. you may be prescribed medicines called statins to reduce your risk of developing cardiovascular disease. you may be advised to reduce your daily salt and fluid intake, including fluids in food such as soups and yoghurts, to help reduce the swelling. if you have anaemia, you may be given injections of a medicine called erythropoietin. if your kidneys are severely damaged, you can get a build-up of phosphate in your body because your kidneys cannot get rid of it. but if your phosphate level rises too much, it can upset the balance of calcium in your body and lead to thinning of the bones.
if this does not lower your phosphate level enough, you may be given medicines called phosphate binders. if a kidney biopsy finds this is the cause of your kidney problems, you may be prescribed medicine to reduce the activity of your immune system, such as a steroid or a medicine called cyclophosphamide. if you are having a bad flare-up and are unable to exercise, you may be offered electrical stimulation to make your muscles stronger. this is a method of removing waste products and excess fluid from the blood. haemodialysis is usually done about 3 times a week, either at hospital or at home. talk to your doctor about the pros and cons of each type of dialysis and which type you would prefer if your kidney function becomes severely reduced. about 90% of transplants still function after 5 years and many work usefully after 10 years or more. you’ll be offered supportive treatment if you decide not to have dialysis or a transplant for kidney failure, or they’re not suitable for you. the aim is to treat and control the symptoms of kidney failure.
chronic kidney disease, also called chronic kidney failure, involves a gradual loss of kidney function. your kidneys filter wastes and chronic kidney disease, also known as chronic renal disease or ckd, is a condition characterized by a gradual loss of kidney function over time. medical renal diseases are those that involve principally the parenchyma of the kidneys. hematuria, proteinuria, pyuria, oliguria, polyuria, pain, renal, .
overview. end-stage renal disease, also called end-stage kidney disease or kidney failure, occurs when chronic kidney disease u2014 the gradual loss of kidney function u2014 reaches an advanced state. in end-stage renal disease, your kidneys no longer work as they should to meet your body’s needs. a renal disease can be attributed to a variety of causes which, include genetics, injuries and medicine. find a full list of kidney there’s no medicine specifically for ckd, but medicine can help control many of the problems that cause the condition and the complications that can happen as a chronic kidney disease (ckd) is a slow and progressive loss of kidney function over several years. eventually, a person may develop kidney failure., .
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