a systematic review was conducted using samueli institute’s rapid evidence assessment of the literature (real©) process to determine the evidence base for melatonin as an agent to optimize sleep or improve sleep quality, and generalize the results to a military, civilian, or other healthy, active, adult population. this review also discusses strengths, weaknesses, and gaps emerging from the review, as well as recommendations for moving this research field forward, in particular with regard to the usefulness of melatonin for military populations in need of sleep regulation as well as other populations with similar sleep issues. smes examined the outcomes of the individual rcts for each category of intended use (i.e., shift workers, jet lag, insomnia, healthy volunteers) in order to: 1) examine the confidence in the estimate of the effect; 2) determine the magnitude of the effect size overall; 3) assign a safety grade to the literature; and 4) develop recommendations for the melatonin literature based on the real results for the overall literature pool of studies for each category. ultimately, 35 rcts, with a total of 2,356 subjects, were included in this review (see figure 1 for the flow chart of included studies). consequently, the smes were not able to give any recommendation for the use of melatonin in shift workers at this time. all except one  of the seven studies investigating the effect of melatonin on initiation of sleep or sleep efficacy were scored high quality, and five [49, 51–54] of them showed results in favor of melatonin.
the five studies investigating the effects of a nighttime dose of melatonin on phase shift/ hormone changes in healthy populations were more physiologically-based with primary outcomes being a change in the biomarkers being studied, and had severe limitations in study quality compared to the other two groups. the amount of melatonin provided, and frequency of administration reported in the included studies varied greatly. for the studies with exclusively healthy volunteers, a weak recommendation was made in favor of melatonin use for initiating sleep or sleep efficacy, again, despite sample sizes and low power. the wide variety of methods reported in the literature for measuring melatonin in humans has increased the difficulty of comparing results across different studies; guidelines for the measurement and reporting of studies utilizing melatonin preparations have been recommended in order to advance the field . although the majority of the studies in this review were relatively high quality and limited to healthy adults, great heterogeneity existed in terms of sample sizes, assessment tools, and the range of melatonin dosages administered. four [25–28] rcts reported on different outcomes of the same study and were therefore combined; the most recent study was cited in the paper.
“your body produces melatonin naturally. it doesn’t make you sleep, but as melatonin levels rise in the evening it puts you into a state of quiet wakefulness we found that the treatment with exogenous melatonin has positive effects on sleep quality as assessed by the pittsburgh sleep quality index melatonin significantly improved sleep quality (p = 0.04) compared to placebo, indicating that controlled-release melatonin may effectively facilitate, related health topics, related health topics.
insomnia. research suggests that melatonin might slightly reduce the time it takes to fall asleep, but its effects on sleep quality and total sleep time aren’t a review of 11 studies demonstrated that taking melatonin before bed decreased sleep latency by almost 3 minutes and increased total sleep time by about 30 darkness prompts the pineal gland to start producing melatonin while light causes that production to stop. as a result, melatonin helps regulate, .
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