the upper airway can have an increased risk of abnormal collapse due to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. the severity can be increased in those with obesity, tobacco exposure, and reduced family income.  it is important to evaluate sleep quantity and quality during the evaluation of the pediatric patient. this patient group may not always exhibit the typical signs of pediatric osa, and there should be a low threshold for sleep study referral. the data collected allows for calculations to include sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, and time in each stage of sleep.
however, in pediatric patients who are non-obese and non-syndromic, a&t is superior in the improvement of the ahi.  myofunctional therapy is a new area of study in the treatment of both pediatric and adult osa. in a study that compared the success of a&t with watchful waiting, patients who had undergone a&t were found to have a significant improvement in osa symptoms, ahi, and behavior. if a patient is treated with a&t, there are certain surgical risks and complications that are associated with the procedure. providers must recognize the importance of education regarding sleep issues to facilitate discussions with caregivers and specialists when there is evidence of pediatric osa.
the major consequences of pediatric osa involve neurobehavioral, cardiovascular, and endocrine and metabolic systems. the major intriguing component of the association between osa and cognitive functioning lies in the observation that not all children with osa actually manifest cognitive morbidities, suggesting that other factors may be playing a role in this process. under such a conceptual framework (67, 68), we have shown in a community-based study of snoring and nonsnoring school-aged children that osa in children increases c-reactive protein levels and if such increases occur the probability for decreased cognitive performance is markedly elevated compared with control children (69). the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (eds) in children with osa is somewhat unclear, and probably depends on the perceptions of caretakers because children are unlikely to verbalize such symptoms.
the intermittent hypoxia during sleep that occurs in children with osa may induce elevations of pulmonary artery pressures, at least during sleep, and such events may lead to some degree of right ventricular dysfunction. although the implications of such findings remain to be established, we should also emphasize that adiponectin levels were reduced in obese children but were not affected by osa, and that resistin concentrations were not affected by either osa or obesity (140). in a series of studies, significant improvements in ahi and oxygenation have been demonstrated in a cohort of children with osa and ahi greater than 5 or in children with enlarged adenoids (179–182). the spectrum of disease that encompasses habitual snoring and osa in children is associated with increased prevalence of a variety of morbidities spanning the cns and the cardiovascular and endocrine systems. does not have a financial relationship with a commercial entity that has an interest in the subject of this manuscript.
pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (osa) is a childhood disorder in which there is upper airway dysfunction causing complete or partial obstructive sleep apnea (osa) in children has emerged not only as a relatively prevalent condition but also as a disease that imposes a large array of a sleeping disorder that causes a child to stop breathing momentarily symptoms include snoring, extremely restless sleep, bedwetting, and daytime sleepiness, .
pediatric obstructive sleep apnea is a sleep disorder in which your child’s breathing is partially or completely blocked repeatedly during sleep. the condition is due to narrowing or blockage of the upper airway during sleep. there are differences between pediatric obstructive sleep apnea and adult sleep apnea. untreated pediatric osa is associated with behavioral and learning problems; in more severe cases, it can be associated with impaired growth obstructive sleep apnea (osa) is a condition in which there are brief pauses in your child’s breathing pattern during sleep., .
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