while these diseases are also prevalent in the general population, their impact on individuals with smi is significantly greater 31,32. although many factors contribute to the poor physical health of people with smi 33, the increased morbidity and mortality seen in this population are largely due to a higher prevalence of modifiable risk factors, many of which are related to individual lifestyle choices 31. however, this is not the whole story. people with schizophrenia have a 2.8 to 3.5 increased likelihood of being obese 79. several canadian and us studies reported rates of obesity (bmi ≥30) in patients with schizophrenia of 42-60% 63,79,80. on the other hand, those with major depression or bipolar disorder have a 1.2 to 1.5 increased likelihood of being obese (bmi ≥30) 44,69,70,81,82. clinical research has suggested that up to 68% of treatment-seeking bipolar disorder patients are overweight or obese 83. one study found an obesity rate (bmi ≥30) of 57.8% among those with severe depression 84. in patients with smi, as in the general population, obesity is associated with lifestyle factors (e.g., lack of exercise, poor diet), but also with illness-related (negative, disorganized and depressive symptoms) and treatment-related factors, including weight liability of certain psychotropic agents. in individuals at high risk, a combination of moderate weight loss, increased physical activity and dietary advice can lead to a 60% reduction in dm incidence 207,208. evidence suggests that the prevalence of dm in people with schizophrenia as well as in people with bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder is 2-3 fold higher compared with the general population 103,209,210,211,212,213,214,215,216. the risk of dm in people with depression or depressive symptoms is 1.2-2.6 times higher compared to people without depression 217,218,219,220,221,222,223,224,225. the reason for the increased risk of dm in smi patients is multifactorial and includes genetic and lifestyle factors as well as disease and treatment specific effects.
they are more likely to be overweight or obese, to have dm, hypertension, or dyslipidemia and to smoke 25,95,229,178,305,306,307,308. the excess cvd mortality associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is widely attributed to the 1-5 fold rr of the modifiable cvd risk factors in this group of patients compared with the general population (table (table77). however, studies exploring the relationship between smi and all cancer types together have shown conflicting results 30,439. some studies have demonstrated a decreased cancer risk in schizophrenia 440,441,442,443,444,445,446,447,448. on the other hand, other studies found an increased 9,21,28,449,450,451 or no different 292,419,452,453 overall risk of cancer in patients with schizophrenia compared to the general population. nevertheless, the available data seem to indicate that hyperprolactinemia with associated hypogonadism may be a risk factor 488, leading to bone mineral loss in women as well as men 499. the majority of studies directly examining the relationship between ad and bmd in humans report that the use of these medications is associated with low bmd 486. however, this finding seems to be restricted to the ssri class of ad 500,501,502. data describing the epidemiology of osteoporotic fracture and psychotropics in patients with smi are limited. prevalence of constipation in randomized controlled trials for different ap is: zotepine 39.6%, clozapine 21.3%, haloperidol 14.6% and risperidone 12% 583. next to medication effects, lifestyle and diet factors can contribute to the occurrence of constipation in people with smi (sedentary life, low physical activity, diet low in fibre, limited fluid intake) 584. clinicians should actively and systematically screen and monitor symptoms and possible complications of constipation 585,586,587,588. in summary, many physical disorders have been identified that are more prevalent in individuals with smi.
this systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. therefore, this systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. these criteria were related to the selection of participants (ensuring that those with the outcome already present at the baseline study were excluded), the attrition from the baseline study to the end of follow-up and adjustments for the main confounders. with the exception of one study , all studies were published between the years 2005 and 2016. only one study was not reported in english . a significant association between burnout and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases has also been observed in a cohort study of industrial employees that lasted 10 years . similar results were found in a finnish study that aimed to evaluate whether changes in burnout levels over a four-year period predicted the use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications in the following eight years.
in a study that grouped the exhaustion and cynicism dimensions of burnout (excy), hallsten et al. finally, studies with students were not included in our review, although undergraduate and graduate medical students in particular may experience many of the stressors and consequences of professional burnout . among the physical consequences of burnout that were prospectively investigated, cardiovascular diseases and pain stood out. burnout significantly predicted depressive symptoms or antidepressant treatment in the majority of the studies that investigated psychological consequences, and these relationships were stronger for the subdimensions emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. in addition to absenteeism, there is evidence that burnout also increased the risk of future disability pension [28, 29]. the individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment.
physical ailment definition: an ailment is an illness , especially one that is not very serious . [ ] | meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples. the meaning of ailment is a bodily disorder or chronic disease. how to use ailment in a sentence. to suffer from that disease is to suffer from a physical ailment and to suffer shame, remorse and regret. from the. hansard archive., ailment meaning, ailment meaning, top 10 most common diseases, ailment in a sentence, ailment meaning in hindi.
allergies; colds and flu; conjunctivitis (“pink eye“); diarrhea; headaches; mononucleosis; stomach aches. allergies. allergies are an immune response ailment definition, a physical disorder or illness, especially of a minor or chronic nature. see more. we report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic treatment and, 20 most common diseases, illnesses, list of diseases and their symptoms, causes of common illness.
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