certain patient characteristics, such as age and the type of elevated blood pressure, may confer increased likelihood that the hypertension is secondary to underlying sleep apnea. children with sleep apnea have higher daytime diastolic pressure and less nocturnal dipping of blood pressure than body mass-matched controls.11 thus, younger patients with osa may be more susceptible to consequent hypertension than the elderly. a growing body of evidence suggests that obesity and sleep apnea, in part via effects on blood pressure and also via direct effects on the heart, may have long-term effects on cardiac structure and function in adults and in children.
cpap treatment of osa may attenuate several of the mechanisms believed to be responsible for development of hypertension in these patients, including inflammation and endothelial and metabolic dysfunction. there is also considerable evidence that treatment of sleep apnea lowers blood pressure acutely and in the long-term, both at night and during the day. shown is the relationship between the mean net change in systolic blood pressure (sbp) and the corresponding mean nocturnal cpap usage based on a meta-analysis of cpap trials by bazzano et al.36 this suggests that longer nightly cpap use may offer greater benefit in reducing sbp (r2=0.40; p=0.13). is supported by national institutes of health grant hl61560, hl65176, hl73211, and m01-rr00585 and the mayo clinic college of medicine.
hypertension, on the other hand, is defined as an increase in systemic arterial blood pressure to a certain threshold. osa is more common in patients with htn than in the general population, and many patients with osa may have htn as well . at night, the fluid from the lower limbs is redistributed to the neck, which causes further obstruction and rise in bp and episodes of hypopnea or hypoxia in patients with htn and osa. the sympathetic nervous system is activated and parasympathetic nervous system is deactivated by changes in the levels of co2 and o2; the increase in co2 and decrease in o2 are caused by the events of apnea .
a number of studies have been reported that the effects of osa on cardiovascular conditions such as atrial fibrillation and htn are more prominent in younger than in older older individuals. in a randomized control trial, to assess the effect of cpap and weight reduction on osa patients were divided into groups having cpap treatment alone, weight reduction or cpap, and weight reduction together . due to the increasing number of patients with osa, more research and studies are required to explore the co-relation of osa with htn as well as other conditions. in this review article, we have tried to discuss a few of the well-related and studied factors that co-relate osa and htn.
osa doesn’t only affect blood pressure at night. studies show that daytime blood pressure levels also increase with sleep apnea severity. how although osa has been associated with a range of cardiovascular diseases, it has been etiologically linked most convincingly to hypertension. there is also there’s a wealth of research suggesting that sleep apnea and high blood pressure are a dangerous pair. obstructive sleep apnea, which occurs, .
sudden drops in blood oxygen levels that occur during sleep apnea increase blood pressure and strain the cardiovascular system. having obstructive sleep apnea increases your risk of high blood pressure (hypertension). when you periodically stop breathing in your sleep, your body releases stress hormones. the american heart association explains that, with obstructive sleep apnea, these hormones can lead to high blood pressure, stroke, and heart disease. the apneic episodes in osa lead to an increase in bp, which further exposes the patient to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risks. thus, identification of the the airway blockages created by obstructive sleep apnea cause your blood pressure to increase, because your heart is working harder to get sleep apnea is one of the most common sleep disorders in the united states. of people diagnosed with osa, it is estimated that around half also, .
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