stress related diseases

here we discuss the role of inflammation in stress-induced diseases and suggest a common pathway for stress-related diseases that is based on chronic mild inflammation. we make a brief summary of stress and inflammation in the field of stress-related diseases. elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, increased microglia activation and accumulation of peripherally-derived monocytes and macrophages were detected in the brain with psychological stress exposure (johnson et al., 2005). gcs, catecholamines, cytokines and other mediators released by stress are thought to be the main mediators in stress-induced pro-inflammatory effect. this suggested that the possible mechanisms of stress-related inflammation in cvd may include sns-mediated increases in ne and npy. at the intersection of metabolism and immunity, inflammation may be an important link between stress and metabolic disease. inflammatory stress may aggravate the progression of nafld by increasing cholesterol influx and reducing cholesterol efflux especially during the second-hit stage of nafld (ma et al., 2008). data from animal models and clinical patients prove the role of inflammation in depression. the role of stress and inflammation are being recognized in neurodegenerative disease. chronic stress is thought to correlate with the etiology of tumor growth, progression and metastasis (thaker et al., 2006). in summary, through disturbing the balance of immune system, stress induces inflammation peripherally and centrally. figure 1. scheme for the relationship among stress, inflammation and stress-related diseases. to improve stress condition, reduction of psychological and physical stress should be put on the agenda of the patients with a wide variety of the chronic multifactorial stress-related diseases. the stress hormone norepinephrine increases migration of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. childhood adversity and pubertal timing: understanding the origins of adulthood cardiovascular risk. stress and neuroinflammation: a systematic review of the effects of stress on microglia and the implications for mental illness. osteopontin is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with alzheimer’s disease and its levels correlate with cognitive decline. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.6-1-19 donath, m. y., and shoelson, s. e. (2011). a meta-analysis of cytokines in major depression. doi: 10.1172/jci31871 garcía-bueno, b., caso, j. r., and leza, j. c. (2008). doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00677.2010 graham, j. e., christian, l. m., and kiecolt-glaser, j. k. (2006). systematic review of the association between circulating interleukin-6 (il-6) and cancer. relationship of childhood adversity and neighborhood violence to a proinflammatory phenotype in emerging adult african american men: an epigenetic link.

lack of interleukin-1α or interleukin-1β inhibits transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. chronic stress accelerates pancreatic cancer growth and invasion: a critical role for β-adrenergic signaling in the pancreatic microenvironment. the integration of cardiovascular behavioral medicine and psychoneuroimmunology: new developments based on converging research fields. the changing organization of work and the safety and health of working people: a commentary. chemerin has a protective role in hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting the expression of il-6 and gm-csf and mdsc accumulation. inflammatory stress exacerbates lipid accumulation in hepatic cells and fatty livers of apolipoprotein e knockout mice. a functional genomic fingerprint of chronic stress in humans: blunted glucocorticoid and increased nf-κb signaling. inflammation and its discontents: the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of major depression. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00079.2004 munhoz, c. d., garcía-bueno, b., madrigal, j. l. m., lepsch, l. b., scavone, c., and leza, j. c. (2008). associations between cardiovascular disease risk factors and il-6 and hscrp levels in the elderly. stress and il-1β contribute to the development of depressive-like behavior following peripheral nerve injury. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.07083.x pérez-nievas, b. g., garcía-bueno, b., caso, j. r., menchén, l., and leza, j. c. (2007). physical and sexual abuse in childhood as predictors of early-onset cardiovascular events in women. comparison of c-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the prediction of first cardiovascular events. noise and quality of life. the effects of acute psychological stress on circulating inflammatory factors in humans: a review and meta-analysis. chronic stress promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis in a mouse model of ovarian carcinoma. abuse and subclinical cardiovascular disease among midlife women: the study of women’s health across the nation. association between burnout and circulating levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in schoolteachers. stress induces the danger-associated molecular pattern hmgb-1 in the hippocampus of male sprague dawley rats: a priming stimulus of microglia and the nlrp3 inflammasome. doi: 10.1111/cns.12170 zhao, l., xu, j., liang, f., li, a., zhang, y., and sun, j. the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α activate serotonin transporters. the use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

it can also pose a threat to one’s health depending on how much stress the body absorbs— and how well a person can handle the pressure. the u.s. centers for disease and prevention (cdc) notes that stress can be beneficial by helping people “develop the skills they need to cope with and adapt to new and potentially threatening situations.” but the cdc adds that these benefits end when someone becomes overwhelmed by stress from daily pressures or a traumatic event—and it threatens their health.

“it’s important to treat the stress to help you overcome underlying health problems, such as high blood pressure, digestive problems and risk factors for heart disease.” feeling emotional or nervous, or having trouble sleeping and eating are all normal reactions to stress. “when it comes to stress, the good news is that you can treat and diminish its causes and your underlying health will likely improve as long as you are taking care of other risk factors,” dr. enriquez said.

stress seems to worsen or increase the risk of conditions like obesity, heart disease, and asthma. webmd offers stress release tips to help the morbidity and mortality due to stress-related illness is alarming. emotional stress is a major contributing factor to the six leading causes of death in the 9 illnesses that stress may help cause or make worse 1. depression and other mental health conditions 2. insomnia 3. cardiovascular disease., .

indeed, stress symptoms can affect your body, your thoughts and feelings, and your behavior. being able to recognize common stress symptoms can help you manage while modernization has dramatically increased lifespan, it has also witnessed that the nature of stress has changed dramatically. chronic top 5 stress-related health conditions heart disease. it is unclear why some people are more affected than others by stress, but researchers, . 10 conditions linked to stressheart disease.irritable bowel syndrome (ibs)tension headaches.high blood sugar.alzheimer’s disease.common cold.depression.sleep dysfunction.

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