a dichotomous outcome of sleep quality (improved or not) was reported by 6 studies and showed a statistically significant benefit (relative risk of improved sleep = 1.8, 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.9), but there was evidence of publication bias in this summary measure. we sought to clarify the efficacy of valerian for improving sleep quality by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of all prior randomized, controlled trials. eight of the trials included a measurement of hangover effect the morning after study medication was given,12,13,15,17,19,22,24,25 and 6 of those studies reported results.12,15,17,19,22,25 all showed no difference between the valerian and placebo groups in terms of sleepiness the next morning.
only 6 of the 16 identified studies reported a dichotomous outcome measure of sleep and could be included in the summary measure. of the six studies that reported a measure of morning feeling, all reported no difference between valerian and placebo.12,15,17,19,22,25 similarly, a previous randomized, controlled trial of valerian, which was excluded from this review because a sleep quality outcome was not reported, found that valerian had a hangover effect equal to placebo and less than the benzodiazepine flunitrazepam.22 although only 1 of the included studies21 identified a statistically significant increase in an adverse event in the valerian group (diarrhea), it is not possible to reach definitive conclusions regarding the safety of valerian on the basis of this review. the dichotomous outcome (improved sleep or not) is presented as the relative risk for reporting improved sleep in the valerian group.
our study sought to determine the effects of valerian on sleep quality, depression, and state anxiety in hemodialysis (hd) patients. previous studies have examined the effect of valerian on sleep disorders or depression and state anxiety in non-hd patients.29,30 in the present study, the effect of valerian on sleep quality, depression, and state anxiety was explored in hd patients. the sample size for each group in terms of sleep quality, state anxiety, and depression was estimated to be 6, 12, and 20, respectively, considering a 95% confidence interval and 80% power. the use of valerian and placebo capsules was examined by a nephrologist informed of intervention type for each participant. the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch and had a coating similar to the valerian capsules.
the income level was low in 21.1% of group a and 30.0% of group b (p = 0.513). none of the patients in group a was a smoker, and only one patient (5.0%) smoked in group b (p = 1.000). the mean scores of sleep quality decreased significantly in groups a (p = 0.021) and b (p < 0.001), but the reduction was significantly lower in group a compared to group b (0.9 vs. 4.6; p < 0.001; cohen’s d = 1.46). the results of this study showed that valerian decreases state anxiety and depression symptoms significantly in hd patients. *group a took valerian capsules in the first month and placebo in the second month, and vice versa in group b.
the available evidence suggests that valerian might improve sleep quality without producing side effects. future studies should assess a range of doses of a spanish study concluded that valerian can be used as a supplement to encourage sleep. an australian study reported that treatment with valerian accelerates results from multiple studies indicate that valerian — a tall, flowering grassland plant — may reduce the amount of time it takes to fall asleep and help, valerian root side effects weight gain, valerian root heart attack, valerian root heart attack, valerian root side effects, valerian root for anxiety reviews.
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